Definition of Vertigo According to Experts

Definition of vertigo are: taste sensation of movement or motion of the body or the surrounding environment, can be accompanied by other symptoms, especially of autonomic networking, due to interference with the body's balance tool. Vertigo may not only consist of the symptoms of dizziness, but rather a collection of symptoms or syndrome of somatic symptoms (nystagmus, unstable), autonomic (pallor, cold sweat, nausea, vomiting) and dizziness (Tarwoto, et al. 2007)

Vertigo can also occur in a variety of conditions, including serious brain stem abnormalities, such as multiple sclerosis, infarction, and tumors. (Muttaqin, Arif. 2008)

Vertigo can be classified as a form of balance disorder or disturbance in the orientation of the room. Many system or organ that is involved in regulating and maintaining the balance of our body. The balance is set by the integration of various systems including the vestibular system, visual system and the somatosensory system (propioseptic). To maintain the balance in the room, then at least two of the three systems mentioned above system must function properly. At vertigo, patients feel or see the surroundings move, or he moves to its environment. Movement experienced normally rotates, but sometimes in the form of linear as would fall, or feel drawn away from the vertical plane. In patients with vertigo sometimes we can see the nystagmus. Nystagmus is an involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyeball (Lumban Tobing, 2003).

Vertigo is a feeling abnormal, regarding the movement of the patient or the surrounding vicinity of the patient; suddenly everything seemed to spin or move up and down in front of him. This situation is often followed by vomiting, sweating, and collapse. But never lost consciousness. Often accompanied by symptoms other ear. (Manjoer, Arif, et al., 2002)

Vertigo is a feeling as if the patient moves or rotates, or as if the objects around the patient is moving or spinning, usually accompanied by nausea and loss of balance. Vertigo may last only a few moments or may continue for several hours or even days. Patients often feel better when lying still, but vertigo may continue even if the patient does not move at all (Israr, 2008).

Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or dizziness is a symptom, the patient felt any nearby objects moving rotate or move up and down because of disturbances in the balance system. (Arsyad Soepardi efiaty and Nurbaiti, 2002)

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Nursing Interventions for Heart Failure : Anxiety and Disturbed Sleep Pattern

Nursing Diagnosis for Heart Failure : Anxiety related to tissue oxygenation disorders, stress due to difficulty in breathing and the knowledge that the heart is not functioning properly.
characterized by; anxiety, fear, worry, stress-related illness, anxiety, anger, irritability.

Goal: The patient does not feel anxious.
with expected outcomes:

  • The patient said that anxiety decreased to a level that can be overcome.
  • The patient demonstrated problem-solving skills and know the feeling.

  • Provide the opportunity for the patient to express feelings.
  • Encourage friends and family to consider patients as before.
  • Tell patient medical programs that have been made to lower the impending attack and increase the stability of the heart.
  • Help the patient a comfortable position to sleep or rest, limit visitors.
  • Collaboration for the administration of sedatives and tranquiliser.

Rationale :
  • Statement of the problem can reduce tension, classify the level of coping and facilitate understanding of feelings.
  • Reassure patients that role in the family and work unchanged.
  • Encourage the patient to control symptoms, improve confidence in the medical program and integrate capabilities in self-perception.
  • Creating an atmosphere that allows the patient to sleep.
  • Help the patient relax until physically able to make adequate coping strategies.

Nursing Diagnosis for Heart Failure : Disturbed Sleep Pattern related to waking up frequently secondary to respiratory disorders (tightness, cough).characterized by; lethargy, insomnia, shortness of breath and coughing during sleep.

Goal: The patient can sleep more comfortably.

Interventions :
  • Raise the head of the bed 20 -30 cm. Chock forearm with a pillow.
  • In patients with orthopnea, the patient is seated on the side of the bed with both feet supported on the seat, head and put on the table bed and lumbosacral vertebrae supported by a pillow.

Rationale :
  • Venous return to the heart is reduced, pulmonary congestion is reduced and the suppression of the liver to the diaphragm is reduced and reducing muscle fatigue shoulder.
  • Reduce difficulty breathing and reduces the flow back to the heart.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - 10 Nursing Diagnosis

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a broad classification of disorders, which include chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, and asthma. COPD is an irreversible condition that is associated with dyspnea on activities and a decrease in the flow of air in and out of the lungs. (Brunner & Suddarth, 2001)

COPD is caused by environmental factors and lifestyle. Are largely preventable. Smoking is estimated to be the cause of 80-90% of cases of COPD. Men between the ages of 30-40 years at most COPD. This disease is associated with the risk factors contained in the patient, among others:

  • Cigarette smoking is prolonged.
  • Air pollution.
  • Recurrent pulmonary infections.
  • Age.
  • Gender.
  • Ras.
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
  • Deficiency of anti-oxidants.
The development of symptoms that are characteristic of COPD is a chronic malfunction of the respiratory system are manifestations initially form:
Hard to breathe.
Cough and sputum production are becoming more especially in the morning.
Losing weight is quite drastic.
Patients easy to feel tired and many who are not physically able to perform daily activities.
Loss of appetite due to the increasingly abundant phlegm production.
Decrease in body strength.

10 Nursing Diagnosis for COPD
  1. Ineffective Airway Clearance related to bronchoconstriction, increased sputum production, ineffective cough, fatigue / decreased energy and bronkopulmonal infection.
  2. Ineffective Breathing Pattern related to shortness of breath, mucus, bronchoconstriction and airway irritants.
  3. Impaired Gas Exchange related to ventilation perfusion inequality.
  4. Activity Intolerance related to imbalance between supply with oxygen demand.
  5. Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements related to anorexia.
  6. Disturbed Sleep Pattern related to discomfort, the setting position.
  7. Self-Care Deficit Bathing / Hygiene, Dressing / Grooming, Feeding, toileting related secondary fatigue due to increased respiratory effort and the insufficiency of ventilation and oxygenation.
  8. Anxiety related to threat to self-concept, the threat of death, unmet needs.
  9. Ineffective Individual Coping related to lack of socialization, anxiety, depression, low activity levels and inability to work.
  10. Knowledge Deficit related to lack of information, do not know the source of information.

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Nursing Care Plan for Ventricular Septal Defect

Nursing Diagnosis Delayed Growth and Development for Ventricular Septal Defect

Ventricular septal defect

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart. This wall also is called the ventricular septum.

No one knows what causes ventricular septal defects, but they probably come from a malformation of the heart that occurs while the infant is developing in the womb.
  • There may be just one hole or several holes in the septum.
  • The septum itself is divided into multiple areas, including the membranous part, the muscular part, and other areas called the inlet and outlet. Any or all of these parts can have a hole.
  • The location of the hole depends on where the malformation takes place during fetal development.
The most common type of ventricular septal defect is the membranous variant. In this type, the hole is located below the aortic valve, which controls flow of blood from the left ventricle into the main artery of the body, the aorta.

A ventricular septal defect usually is diagnosed after a baby is born.

The size of the ventricular septal defect will influence what symptoms, if any, are present, and whether a doctor hears a heart murmur during a physical examination. Signs of a ventricular septal defect might be present at birth or might not appear until well after birth. If the hole is small, it usually will close on its own and the baby might not show any signs of the defect. However, if the hole is large, the baby might have symptoms, including:
  • Shortness of breath,
  • Fast or heavy breathing,
  • Sweating,
  • Tiredness while feeding, or
  • Poor weight gain.
During a physical examination the doctor might hear a distinct whooshing sound, called a heart murmur. If the doctor hears a heart murmur or other signs are present, the doctor can request one or more tests to confirm the diagnosis. The most common test is an echocardiogram, which is an ultrasound of the heart that can show problems with the structure of the heart, show how large the hole is, and show how much blood is flowing through the hole.

Nursing Diagnosis for Ventricular Septal Defect : Delayed Growth and Development
related to an inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues.

  • Growth and development are not compromised
the expected outcomes:
  • Weight and height of the ideal

Nursing Interventions:
  • Monitor height and weight scales every day with the same tools and the same time and documented in the form of graphs.
  • Allow the child to rest and avoid frequent disturbances during sleep.


  • Knowing the weight change.
  • Sleep can accelerate the growth and development of children.

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Electrocardiograph CardiMax FX-7542

Electrocardiograph CardiMax FX-7542

Multifunctional electrocardiograph with proven basics plus flexibility! Suitable medical equipment for Hospital setting.
10-minutes frozen waveform storage
Latest ECG analysis program(Ver. S2)
XGA liqid-crystal monitor featuring 1,024x768 dots , 65,536 color
Time comparison between studies.
Various options
Dimensions 335(W) x 346(D) x 119(H) mm
Weight Approx. 8Kg
Frozen waveform storage for more substantial examination

A touch of the button, 10 minutes(maximum) of frozen waveforms of all leads, from which a desired portion can be designated for recording, analyzing or filing will be stored to the memory. This function is especially useful for cases where stable ECG is difficult to obtain as in pediatric examination or where abnormal ECG may temporarily appear.
XGA liquid-crystal monitor featuring 1,024x768 dots, 65536 colors

Offers high-definition images as on chart paper, thereby enabling diagnosis directly from the screen.
Memory Image Viewer

This Function enables the staff to view all lead waveforms of the past 10 minutes and the waveform section that has been selected.
Large LCD screen enables waveform observation in detail.

High image quality and user-friendly interface provide great examination environment.
The smoothing function enables presentation of gentle waveforms without any hitching.

Diagnostic Support

Highly accurate analysis capability to support diagnosis and facilitate explanation to the patients
Adherence to excellent analysis accuracy has led to a higher and efficient diagnostic tool.
The advanced ECG analysis program(Ver.S2) outstandingly improved the rate of detecting myocardial infarction, supraventricular extrasystole and WPW syndrome. In addition, onscreen comparison with past waveforms enables easy confirmation of waveform changes.